The Noah Controversy: Could that Flood have happened?

Russel Crowe starring in Noah
Russel Crowe starring in Noah

Today movie theaters worldwide open with one of the most anticipated blockbusters of 2014 – “Noah”.  Not only is there a lot of hype surrounding the movie but a lot of controversy as well.  Critics are questioning how faithfully the plotline follows the biblical account – with Russell Crowe (who stars as Noah) trying – and failing – to get the Pope’s personal stamp of approval for the film.  In the Islamic world several countries are banning the movie since it visually depicts a prophet – which is forbidden in most Islamic interpretations.  But all these hullabaloos are merely minor hiccups compared to a much deeper and longer-running controversy – did such a worldwide flood really happen?  That’s a question worth considering.

I have shown how multiple cultures around the world have a memory of a great flood leaving only a handful of survivors from which they descended.  There is anthropological and historical evidence for a ‘Noah’.  But are there any physical evidences of ‘his’ flood around in the world today?

The Power of Moving Flood Water seen in Tsunamis

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The Tsunami hits the coast of Japan in 2011

Let’s start by surmising what such a flood would have done to the earth.  For sure, a flood of that scope would involve unimaginable quantities of water moving at great speeds and depths over continental distances.  Large quantities of water moving at high speeds have a lot of kinetic energy (KE = ½ * mass * velocity2).   This is why floods are so destructive.  When we saw the pictures of the 2011 Tsunami that devastated Japan, we saw how kinetic water energy can cause extensive damage, easily picking up and moving large objects like cars, homes and boats – and crippling nuclear reactors in its path.

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That tsunami showed how the energy of a few ‘big’ waves could move and destroy almost everything in their path

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Floods and Sedimentary Rock

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A flooding river in Ecuador. The water is brown because the fast moving water is carrying a lot of dirt – sediment.

Thus, when water increases its speed it will start to pick up and transport sediment – particles of dirt, sand, rocks and boulders.

This is why swollen and flooding rivers are brown – they are loaded with sediment (soil and rock) that has been picked up from the surface over which the water is traveling.

Aerial view in New England showing brown flood water entering ocean. It is brown from the sediments
Aerial view in New England showing brown flood water entering ocean. It is brown from the sediments
sediment will sort into layers based on particle size even in a 'dry' flow
sediment will sort into layers based on particle size even in a ‘dry’ flow

When water starts to slow down and loses its kinetic energy it then drops this sediment which is deposited in laminar layers resulting in a particular kind of rock.

Japan tsunami 2011. Sediment laid down during tsunami flooding.2011-tsunami-sediment
Sediments from the 2011 Japan Tsunami showing pancake-like layers – this is the signature for sedimentary rock – rock that was laid down by moving water. Taken from British Geological Survey website

This kind of rock is known as sedimentary rock and is easily recognized by its trademark pancake-like layers that are stacked upon one another.  The figure below shows sedimentary layers about 20 cm thick (from the measuring tape) that were deposited from the devastating 2011 tsunami in Japan.

Sedimentary rock from Tsunami that hit Japan in 859 AD
Sedimentary rock from a tsunami that hit Japan in 859 AD. It also produced sedimentary rock about 20-30 cm thick. Taken from British Geological Survey website

 

 

 

 

 

Tsunamis and river floods leave their signatures behind in these sedimentary rocks long after the flood has receded and things have turned back to normal.

Sedimentary Strata around the World

So, do we find sedimentary rocks that are, in a similar way, signature markers for the Noahic deluge that the Bible claims happened?  When you ask that question and you start to look around you will see that our planet is literally covered in sedimentary rock.  You will notice this type of pancake-layer rock on highway cut-a-ways.  What is different about this sedimentary rock, when you compare it with the sedimentary strata that were produced by the devastating tsunami of Japan in 2011 is the sheer size – both laterally across the earth and in vertical thickness of sedimentary layers.  Below are some photos that I have taken of sedimentary rocks as I have traveled.

Mountains of Sedimentary rock in hinterlands of Morocco
Sedimentary formations in the hinterlands of Morocco that extend for many kilometers and are hundreds of meters thick vertically
joggins
Sedimentary rock in Joggins, Nova Scotia. The layers are tilted about 30 degrees and are stacked vertically more than a kilometer deep.

 

The escarpment in Hamilton Ontario shows vertical sedimentary rock many meters thick
The escarpment in Hamilton Ontario shows vertical sedimentary rock many meters thick. This is part of the Niagara escarpment which extends for hundreds of miles.

 

This escarpment extends for hundreds of miles. This sedimentary formation covers a good part of North America
This sedimentary formation covers a good part of North America

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sedimentary formations on a drive through US MidWest
Sedimentary formations on a drive through the US Midwest
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Note the cars (barely visible) for scale to compare with these sedimentary rocks.

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The sedimentary formations go on and on…

Bryce Canyon Sedimentary Formations
Bryce Canyon Sedimentary Formations in US Midwest

 

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Towering Sedimentary formations on drive through US Midwest

 

Continental extent of the sedimentary strata in US Midwest. Miles thick and hundreds of miles wide
Continental extent of the Sedimentary strata in US Midwest. Miles thick and extending laterally for hundreds of miles. Taken from ‘Grand Canyon: Monument to Catastrophe’ by Dr. Steve Austin

So if one tsunami which caused such devastation in Japan left sedimentary layers measured in centimeters and that extend inland a few kilometers, what mechanism explains the gigantic and continental-in-scope sedimentary formations found almost over the entire globe (including on the ocean bottom) that are measured vertically in hundreds of meters and are measured laterally in thousands of kilometers?  Could these sedimentary rocks be the signature of Noah’s flood?

Rapid Deposition of Sedimentary Formations

No one argues that the planet is not covered in sedimentary rock of unbelievably massive scope.  The question is whether these sedimentary rocks were laid down by one event (i.e. Noah’s flood), or whether these massive formations were built up over time through a series of smaller events (of the scope of the tsunami in Japan of 2011) that were separated by significant intervals of time. The figure below illustrates this other concept.

Conceptual illustration of how large sedimentary formations could have formed
Conceptual illustration of how large sedimentary formations could have formed apart from Noah’s flood

As you can see, in this model of sedimentary formation (technically known as neo-catastrophism) a series of high impact sedimentary events are separated by large intervals of time.  These events add sedimentary layers onto the previous layers and so, over time, the huge formations that we see around the world today are built up sequentially.

Soil Formation and Sedimentary Strata

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Sedimentary rock in Prince Edward Island. We can see that a soil layer has formed on top of it so we know that some period of time has elapsed since these strata were laid down by flood water

Do we have any real-world data that can help us evaluate between these two models?  Actually, it is not that hard to spot.  On top of many of these sedimentary formations we see that soil layers have formed.  Thus a physical and observable indicator of time passage after a sedimentary event is soil formed on top of it.  Soil is characterized by horizons (called A horizon – often dark with organic material, the B horizon – with more minerals, etc.).

Thin layer of soil (and trees) has formed over sedimentary rock that has been exposed for a time
Thin layer of soil (and trees) has formed over sedimentary rock in US Midwest showing that these sedimentary rocks were laid down some time ago.
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Soil layer clearly visible on top of sedimentary rock in US Midwest. These rocks were thus laid down sometime ago.

Sedimentary strata laid down to form a new ocean bottom will also soon be marked with life signs.  Wormholes, clam tunnels and other signs of life (known as bioturbation) provide tell-tale signs of life and of the passage of time since the strata were deposited on the sea floor.

bioturbation
Life on the bottom of shallow seas will, over a rather short interval of time, reveal its telltale markers. This is called bioturbation

 

Conceptual illustration of how large sedimentary formations could have formed
Testing the model of catastrophe sequences by looking for evidence of soil formation or bioturbation at the ‘Time passes’ planes

Armed with this insight we can see if we find evidence of soil formation or bioturbation at these ‘Time passes’ borders in the strata formation.  After all, this model is saying that at some point these ‘Time passes’ boundaries were exposed surfaces for significant periods of time either on land or under water.  In that case we should expect some of these surfaces to have developed soil or bioturbation indicators.  When these time boundary surfaces were buried by subsequent sedimentary events the soil or bioturbation would have likewise been buried.  Take a look again at the photos above and below.  Do we see any evidence of either soil formation or bioturbation?

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No evidence of soil layers or bioturbation in this sedimentary formation in US Midwest.

There is no evidence of soil layers or bioturbation in the above photo or the one below.  Look again at the Hamilton escarpment photo and you will see no evidence of any bioturbation or soil formation.  From that data the bottom of these formations were laid down almost equivalent in time from the top.  Yet these formations all extend vertically about 50-100 meters.

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Folding of Sedimentary Rocks

 

Sedimentary strata formed in 1980 from Mount St Helens had already become brittle by 1983
Sedimentary strata formed in 1980 from Mount Saint Helens had already become brittle by 1983. Taken from ‘Grand Canyon: Monument to Catastrophe’ by Dr. Steve Austin

Sedimentary strata, when they are laid down in moving water are initially permeated with water and thus they bend very easily.  They are pliable.  But it only takes a few years for these sedimentary strata to dry out and harden and when that happens they become brittle as was learned from the events of Mount St Helens eruption in 1980 followed by a 1983 lake breach.

When brittle rock is bent it snaps. This principle is shown

rock-tension-cracks
Sedimentary rock gets brittle very quickly. When brittle it snaps when bent.

 

in the figure on the side.  We can see this sort of rock failure in the Niagara escarpment.  After these sediments were laid down they became brittle and when an upthrust then pushed up some of these sedimentary layers they snapped under the shear stress, forming the Niagara escarpment which runs for hundreds of miles.  From this evidence

Niagara escarpment
Niagara escarpment is Sedimentary Rock that broke under shear stress and was thrust up in a fault.
Niagara escarpment is an upthrust extending hundreds of miles
Niagara escarpment is an upthrust extending hundreds of miles

We know that the upthrust that produced the Niagara escarpment happened after these sedimentary strata became brittle so there was some time lapse between the deposition of these sedimentary strata and the upthrust which produced the escarpment.  There was at least enough time between these events for the strata to harden and become brittle – which does not take eons of time, but does take a couple of years at least.

The photo below shows large sedimentary formations that I photographed in Morocco.  You can see how the strata formation bends as a unit.  There is no evidence of the strata snapping either in tension (pulled apart) or in shear (sidewise stress).  This whole formation must have still been pliable when it was bent.  But if it takes only a couple of years for sedimentary rock to become brittle. This means that there can be no significant passage of time between the lower layers and the upper layers in this formation.  If there had been ‘time passage’ in these layers then the earlier layers would have become brittle and would have snapped rather than bent when the formation was contorted.

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Sedimentary formations in Morocco. The whole formation bends as a unit showing that it had still been supple (rather than dry and brittle) when it was bent. This indicates that there is no time passage from the bottom to the top of this formation.
Schematic of upthrust at Grand Canyon showing it was raised vertically about 5000 feet - one mile
Schematic of monocline (bending upthrust) at Grand Canyon showing it was raised vertically about 5000 feet – one mile. Adapted from “The Young Earth” by Dr. John Morris

We can see the same type of bending in the Grand Canyon.  At some point in the past there was a bending upthrust (technically known as a monocline), similar to the Niagara escarpment, that raised one side of the strata one mile vertically up (this you see from the elevation difference of 7000 ft compared to 2000 ft on the opposing sides of the upthrust).  But here the strata did not snap (like the Niagara escarpment did).  Instead it bent at both the bottom and the top of the formation, indicating that it was still pliable throughout rather than brittle through the formation.

Bending that occurred at Tapeats, in the low layer of Grand Canyon sedimentary formations
Bending that occurred at Tapeats, in the low layer of the Grand Canyon sedimentary formations. Taken from ‘Grand Canyon: Monument to Catastrophe’ by Dr. Steve Austin

This indicates that the time interval from the bottom to the top of these strata has an upper limit of a couple of years (the time it takes for sedimentary strata to become hard and brittle).

Noah’s Flood vs. Flood on Mars

The idea of Noah’s flood having actually happened is, of course, quite controversial and in this one article I cannot cover all the issues that it raises which I hope to do later.

Sedimentation and flooding on Mars?
Sedimentation and flooding on Mars?

Mars sediment 2 But at the very least, it is instructive to consider an irony in our modern day.  Because of the channeling and evidence of sedimentation that are visible on Mars, it is actively postulated that Mars was once inundated by a huge flood.  The big problem with this theory is that no water has ever been discovered on the Red Planet.  But for the Earth, though it is 2/3 covered by water – deep enough to cover our whole globe to a depth of one mile if the oceanic trenches were raised and the land mountains smoothed down so the world had less topographic variation – and though it is covered with continental sized sedimentary formations that by physical and observable evidence seem to have been deposited rapidly in a devastating cataclysm, it is almost considered heresy to postulate that any such flood has ever occurred on this planet.  Is that not a double standard?  Though we may look at this Russell Crowe Noah movie as only a reenactment of a myth written as a Hollywood script, perhaps we should look and consider whether the rocks themselves are crying out about this deluge story written on scripts of stone.

10 thoughts on “The Noah Controversy: Could that Flood have happened?”

  1. I read Sumerian civilisation nsd their history whatever
    Is found till date thru’ tablets. A great deluge happened at about 5000 years ago and whole Mesopotamia was flooded. It was described as the whole world of Sumerians were drowned.
    It may not be true that whole known world of today
    Was flooded and whatever logic is shown , it’s almost impossible to believe it. Sumerians world was that part of Middle East and same is applied to Noah’s world too. It’s called known world . Noah did not know north and South America , Australia , South Asia , Africa etc at that time. So the great deluge of Noah happened
    Only in the area Noah and his people knew .
    This is more logical.
    Religious concepts and these books were conceived by those messengers through inspiration of God and books were compiled by our ancestors from the oral traditions of rabbis and clerics .
    Hasan Murshid

    1. Hi Hasan
      Thanks for your thoughts. That there are many flood memories I agree with and have an article on it (see here). These memories come from people who lived far outside of Mesopotamia. For example, there is the Hindu legend from India and then the Polynesians. It is feasible (based solely on looking at lists of where flood memories come from) that these peoples are all remembering different large-scale floods. But when you compare the similarities of the accounts (saving animals, just one favored family, the flood came because of human wickedness etc.) that theory starts get stretched. But the point I was making in this article, is that these memories aside, you find huge sedimentary deposits outside of Mesopotamia. So the case for the extent of the flood is not necessarily due to the testimony of the Noah account, but from the extent and size of the deposits.

      1. Genesis records that the water was gathered into one place, which I feel indicates that the land was also in one place, viz. no separate seas. The plate theory of continental drift may prove more than a theory.

  2. What controversy????

    There is no flood controversy just as there is no controversy between the Sexual Theory and The Stork “theory” or Chemistry and Alchemy.

    The flood never happened. Period.

  3. Thanks Rag. You are always very thorough in your research and explanations. Very helpful. Didn’t find the movie very good, by the way, not because it was about Noah, but because the script was poor.

  4. The movie, which was as far away from biblical truth as the movie Star Wars—what a Bible-believing Christian would typically expect from Hollywood– a pathetic, crude Ark made of logs because they obviously believed the ship-building skills of Noah’s time were primitive (Remember Cain’s son Enoch built a city–and we’re not talking mud huts) and the producers of Noah obviously dod not accept it the Genesis account (chapter 6 to 9) as historical fact. Which is why guys like astronomer Hugh Ross and other theistic evolutionists must postulate a local flood if they are going to be consistent with the evolutionary paradigm or world view of millions/billions of years and avoid the obvious implications of an earth-shattering, earth-restructuring, global flood that would practically revolutionize everything modern evolutionary geologists (converts of the uniformitarian geology of Charles Lyell) have been thought. This movie (typical Hollywood) makes God look like a confused, Killjoy in the sky who is impotent to carry out His will instead of the unchanging, All-wise, All-knowing, All-powerful , sovereign Creator-God of the Bible who knows the beginning from the end and works all things after the council of His will .

  5. I have come across ancient history book when I was teaching Salvation History to my first year students in high school. It described a huge flood which occured, similarly, in Sumerian civilization. Whether great floods occured at different times in different places, I believe that the authors of the Holy Scriptures based the story of the geeat flood during the time of Noah from these different events of huge floods. Having read your researches and studies just now, made me believe this one thing. The Holy Bible was written with the purpose of showing that everything that tranired and continue to happwn in our world could and can never be separated fromthe fact that God is always in the midst of all these events, and that, using these movements of nature with s ientific explanations, the Holy Bible conveys messages on how God involes Himself to teach and further make man realize His existence and thru these, events He speaks to man. Let us be more open to this thought, and allow the Absolute Being communicate with us, to our hearts.

  6. On the basis of the accumulated evidence (I.e. scientific, extra-biblical/secular, biblical, etc.) the Genesis Flood of the Bible is surely one of the best confirmed events in history. Expressions emphasizing the universality of the Noah’s Flood and its effects occur more than 30 times in Genesis 6 through 9 (I.e. Genesis 7:21-23; Genesis 6:17; 7: 19-20, 22; etc.). There are almost 200 non-biblical historical accounts of a gigantic flood that nearly destroyed all humanity from tribes and nations all over the world. The most detailed accounts come, as we would expect, from countries nearest to Ararat, where the Ark landed (Genesis 8:4). Other versions turn up in Persia (modern Iraq and Iran), India, Burma, Indonesia, Sarawak, New Guina, Tahiti, Hawaii, China, Japan, Siberia, Australia (among the original inhabitants-the aborigines), and New Zealand (Maoris) , Alaska (Eskimos), North America (Red Indian), South America, Egypt, Sudan, Nigeria, Congo, South Africa, Greece, Iceland, Lithuania, Finland, Lapland, Wales and Ireland. This agrees with Genesis 9:19: “From these [three sons of Noah and their wives] the whole earth was populated.”
    Of course, now the Bible has come to all these countries, but the flood “legends” (I.e. The Epic of Gilgamesh) were independent of the Bible, passed down over the centuries in scores of tribal legends. Some of the details are especially interesting; for example, Lxtlilxochitl , the native historian of the Aztecs, says that the world lasted 1716 years before it was destroyed by a flood (This figure is only 60 years different from the 1656 years which the Bible gives by addition of the ages in Genesis 5–taking into consideration the overlapping of each subsequent generation by birth. The Chinese character (symbol) for a large ship is a combination of a figure 8 and the symbol for “mouths” or “persons” (Noah + Shem + Japeth +Ham + their wives = 8). The Hottentots of South America believe they are descended from “Noh” and the Hawaiians report a flood from which only “Nu-u” and his family were saved. Very intriguing!
    Over 75% of the earth’s surface is overlaid by up to several miles of layer upon layer of sedimentary rocks, which according to scientific consensus are formed under water. These massive sedimentary deposits contain billions of fossils of all life forms, both complete fossils buried in a certain order (I.e. shell fish with shell fish, animals that can climb above those less mobile, etc.) and disconnected skeletons and broken bones , such as would be expected of violent upheavals of the earth’s crust during a global flood (I.e. volcanism, tidal waves, and earthquakes).
    There are huge fossil graveyards on every major continent–evidence of rapid and mass death, burial, sedimentation and fossilization of life. Animals are commonly found buried in an attitude of terror with heads arched back, , mouths open, etc. (Cumberland Cavern in Maryland, U.S.). the Karroo formation of Africa contains an estimated 800 billion vertebrate fossils animals! (fossils). The Old Red Sandstone in England covers thousands of square miles and contains millions of fossilized fish (estimated more than 1000 per cubic yard) in contorted and contracted positions with spines sticking out and fins spread to the full, as in fish that die violently in convulsions and agony. One of the most famous fossil graveyards is the Geiseltal lignite deposit in Germany where a great mixture of plants (in some instances, leaves till green) , animals, and even insects from all climatic areas of the world are found buried in one common, mass grave–evidence that they were buried deeply and quickly by water-laid sediments to seal them off from the atmosphere and bacteria that cause decay and decomposition. Add to this the fact that large scale fossilization is not occurring anywhere in the world today and you have a serious problem for uniformitarian geologists who believe these fossils were buried gradually over millions/billions of years.
    Uniformitarian explanations of slow and gradual deposition/erosion over millions of years fail to offer a reasonable explanation for such important geologic features and formations as the Tibetan Plateau (thousands of feet thick and over three miles above sea level), the incredible lava Columbia Plateau in northwestern United States ( approximately 200,000 square miles) and the flat, featureless Colorado Plateau . They do explain the rise of mountain chains several times faster than erosion; yet, they contain much “ancient” sedimentary rock. Evolutionists allow enough time to erode the continents many times over; yet they are nearly everywhere covered with sediments–evidence that they were shaped by a lot of water over a little time, not a little water over a lot of time. Witness the tremendous geological work done in minutes or hours by local floods (Tsunami that hit India and Sri Lanka, Mount St. Helen’s explosion, hurricane and flooding in Louisiana, US and typhoon in Philippines, etc.).
    It is ironic that NASA scientists accept that there have been “catastrophic” floods on Mars that carved out canyons although no liquid water is present today. But they deny that a global flood happened on earth, where there is enough water to cover over 71% of the earth’s surface. This clearly demonstrates how the biases of mainstream evolutionary scientists affect their interpretation of the evidence according to their evolutionary framework/paradigm. I am willing to bet that if a global flood was not clearly taught in the Bible, they would have no problem with the idea of a global flood. God bless.

    No evidence for the flood? Obviously we have another Bill Nye here. Did you ever hear of the Mt. St. Helens Explosion that practicallt revelutioned every thing geologists learned in university about uniformitarian geology, especially the rapid work of flooding in canyon making, the rapid and massive deposition of water laid sediments, the transformation of volcanic ash, silica and the bark of tress into the perfect geometry for the formation of peat and coal in days and months, not hundereds of thousands of years? What about mass fossil graves on every major continent of the world containing fossils of animals and fauna from every climatic area of the globe. Or the world’s tallest mountain ranges that contain mile after mile of sedimentary rocks that scientists concede form only under water.? What about the Cambrian explosion and recently the “Avalon Explosion, Mistaken Point, NL? The historic Mistaken Point, Newfoundland has drawn much attention (Queen’s University ) regarding its important fossil assemblage, but could it be that, like the name of the location (“Mistaken Point”), that evolutionary scientists are as mistaken about this “Avalon Explosion” of a variety of new creatures without any evidence of ancestral fossils as they are about the famous Cambrian explosion of a vast variety of fully formed fossils that appear abruptly and suddenly in the Cambrian without any trace of ancestors in the geological layers underneath–hardly evidence for gradual evolution “from the goo, through the zoo, to you” evolution (Thesis of Common Ancestry) that absolutely requires evidence of transitional or intermediate fossils (“missing links”) to be true.
    As Dr. Jonathan Sarfati (PH.D. in physical chemistry) capably points out in his must-read book Evolution: The Greatest Hoax on Earth: Refuting Dawkins on Evolution, “Surely some of the intermediates (Transitional fossils) leading up to the hard, mineralized animals would have intermediate partial skeletons that could have been fossilized? Indeed, research on Precambrian formations has discovered conditions so favorable for fossilization that many soft-bodied creatures have been found (i.e. Mistaken Point or “Avalon Explosion). Even though many Ediacaran fossils [at Mistaken Point] included soft bodied organisms, none are ancestral to the Cambrian creatures. So this hardly solves the problem for evolutionists; namely that about which Stephen J. Gould, considered the world’s foremost evolution, said, “The extreme rarity of transitional fossils in the fossil record is the trade secret of paleontology.”
    Here is what recent scientific research had to say about this “Avalon Explosion:
    “A comprehensive quantitative analysis of these fossils indicates that the oldest Ediacara assemblage–the Avalon assemblage (575 to 565 Ma)–already encompassed the full range of Ediacara morphospace.” ( Shen, B., Dong, L., Xiao , S. and Kowale wski, M., The Avalon explosion: evolution of Ediacara morphospace, Science 319:81-84, 2008). So this hardly solves the problem for evolution–rather, they have two unrelated explosions or discoveries of new creatures with no evidence of evolutionary ancestry” (the Cambrian Explosion and the “Avalon Explosion). God bless.

    If anything, the fossil evidence at Mistaken Point would be far better interpreted as a sequence of deposition, burial and fossilization by sediments rapidly laid down by a global food and its after-effects rather than a sequence of layers representing a sequence of ages with different types of creatures over millions/billions of years of gradual evolution. How else would you explain the fossils of soft-bodied creatures (i.e. jellyfish)? Such fossils certainly could not have formed gradually over millions of years because how long do dead jellyfish last after death and decomposition take place? Obviously, mineralization must occur before they decompose. No, my friend such fossils were not formed gradually over millions of years (that is ridiculous) but buried completely and rapidly by huge amounts of sediments laid down by huge volumes of water–what is necessary for rapid fossilization to occur, and what we would expect to find in a earth-shaking, earth-restructuring, catastrophic global flood (Genesis 6 to 9).

  7. On the basis of the accumulated evidence (I.e. scientific, extra-biblical/secular, biblical, etc.) the Genesis Flood of the Bible is surely one of the best confirmed events in history. Expressions emphasizing the universality of the Noah’s Flood and its effects occur more than 30 times in Genesis 6 through 9 (I.e. Genesis 7:21-23; Genesis 6:17; 7: 19-20, 22; etc.). There are almost 200 non-biblical historical accounts of a gigantic flood that nearly destroyed all humanity from tribes and nations all over the world. The most detailed accounts come, as we would expect, from countries nearest to Ararat, where the Ark landed (Genesis 8:4). Other versions turn up in Persia (modern Iraq and Iran), India, Burma, Indonesia, Sarawak, New Guina, Tahiti, Hawaii, China, Japan, Siberia, Australia (among the original inhabitants-the aborigines), and New Zealand (Maoris) , Alaska (Eskimos), North America (Red Indian), South America, Egypt, Sudan, Nigeria, Congo, South Africa, Greece, Iceland, Lithuania, Finland, Lapland, Wales and Ireland. This agrees with Genesis 9:19: “From these [three sons of Noah and their wives] the whole earth was populated.”
    Of course, now the Bible has come to all these countries, but the flood “legends” (I.e. The Epic of Gilgamesh) were independent of the Bible, passed down over the centuries in scores of tribal legends. Some of the details are especially interesting; for example, Lxtlilxochitl , the native historian of the Aztecs, says that the world lasted 1716 years before it was destroyed by a flood (This figure is only 60 years different from the 1656 years which the Bible gives by addition of the ages in Genesis 5–taking into consideration the overlapping of each subsequent generation by birth. The Chinese character (symbol) for a large ship is a combination of a figure 8 and the symbol for “mouths” or “persons” (Noah + Shem + Japeth +Ham + their wives = 8). The Hottentots of South America believe they are descended from “Noh” and the Hawaiians report a flood from which only “Nu-u” and his family were saved. Very intriguing!
    Over 75% of the earth’s surface is overlaid by up to several miles of layer upon layer of sedimentary rocks, which according to scientific consensus are formed under water. These massive sedimentary deposits contain billions of fossils of all life forms, both complete fossils buried in a certain order (I.e. shell fish with shell fish, animals that can climb above those less mobile, etc.) and disconnected skeletons and broken bones , such as would be expected of violent upheavals of the earth’s crust during a global flood (I.e. volcanism, tidal waves, and earthquakes).
    There are huge fossil graveyards on every major continent–evidence of rapid and mass death, burial, sedimentation and fossilization of life. Animals are commonly found buried in an attitude of terror with heads arched back, , mouths open, etc. (Cumberland Cavern in Maryland, U.S.). the Karroo formation of Africa contains an estimated 800 billion vertebrate fossils animals! (fossils). The Old Red Sandstone in England covers thousands of square miles and contains millions of fossilized fish (estimated more than 1000 per cubic yard) in contorted and contracted positions with spines sticking out and fins spread to the full, as in fish that die violently in convulsions and agony. One of the most famous fossil graveyards is the Geiseltal lignite deposit in Germany where a great mixture of plants (in some instances, leaves till green) , animals, and even insects from all climatic areas of the world are found buried in one common, mass grave–evidence that they were buried deeply and quickly by water-laid sediments to seal them off from the atmosphere and bacteria that cause decay and decomposition. Add to this the fact that large scale fossilization is not occurring anywhere in the world today and you have a serious problem for uniformitarian geologists who believe these fossils were buried gradually over millions/billions of years.

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